Introduction To The Common ‘Styles’ of Salsa
There are several styles of Salsa that could be compared to dialects of the same language. You can speak to someone know has a different dialect and you can dance with someone trained in a different Salsa style. But the nature of the steps and the patterns on the floor in each style are slightly different. Thls link has an extensive summary of many styles and other Latin dances with video examples that are excellent: www.langeasy.com/spanish7/salsa.html#mozTocId558265 .
I would summarize the key features of the various styles as follows.
L. A. style is no doubt shaped in part by the fact that Los Angeles/Hollywood is all about acting, being flashy, and drawing attention to oneself. This style is fast, sharp, and eye-catching. It often includes what Salsa dancers call "tricks" (i.e. acrobatics). In addition, L. A. dancers do a lot of their movements linearly, staying in a "slot." L. A. style is generally danced "on 1" which means you change direction in the basic step on beats 1 and 5 of the 8 beat phrase.
New York style evolved in a city where many great Mambo dancers made their mark. Mambo is "danced on beat two"--which means that the dancers change the direction of their movement on the second beat of the musical phrase. So it is no surprise that many NY dancers dance "on two." In terms of content, New York style Salsa tends to include a lot of multiple spins. This style emphasizes making moves look smooth and clean. The video on the side shows NY style salsa.
NY and LA styles are pretty similar, but LA style is generally on 1 while NY style is typically on 2.
A comment about dancing" on 1" or "on 2":
Breaking (i.e. changing direction) on beat one is generally thought to be simpler than breaking on 2, since beat one is the easiest beat to find or hear. Many people first learn to dance on one and then switch to dancing on two. Those who love dancing on two often feel it is more musically sophisticated and that the rhythmic feeling of the dance is richer. Indeed, there is more rhythmic tension to dancing on an offbeat such as beat two.
Cuban style Salsa is the style that is most like the Salsa done in Cuba, where the dance has its roots. I have heard many say that this style is characterized by a sort of male dominance. (It does seem that some of the moves show off what the men can do.) Cuban style dancers don't tend to do fast, multiple spins. They turn more slowly, typically and these are called “walking turns." In addition, the movement of the partners in this style tends to be circular as opposed to linear. When Cuban moves are danced by one couple on the dance floor, that is referred to as Cuban Style. If those moves are done by a group in a circle, that is referred to as Rueda de Casino.
Rueda de Casino (Salsa Rueda) in Cuba is done a little differently than how it has evolved in the U.S. There is a lot of body movement in Cuban style Salsa, and you can more visibly see the Afro-Cuban roots of the dance when you watch Cuban dancers. Cubans tend to bend their bodies forward more, and their knees are also more bent. Some Rueda dancers try to stay true to the original style of the roots of the dance. But some Rueda dancers do moves that evolved in the US when the dance was brought here.
Miami style Salsa is dominated by the Casino Rueda moves that are popular there. These moves have been used and adapted by Miami dancers. The steps are "pretzelly;" with intricate, interconnected arm movements. In this style, too, the movement of the partners tends to be circular as opposed to linear.
Miami style more or less originated with the Cuban style, but the approach evolved and changed in Florida. So the emphasis in Miami style is a bit different. It tends to emphasize longer and more complex steps that can be blended into even longer sequences of movement. This approach was exported to many other cities via popular DVDs that Salsa Lovers and Salsa Racing produced and sold world wide. It provided some standardization of moves in the early days of Rueda dancing that was very helpful. In more recent years, groups everywhere have altered and created their own moves so now there is an amazing array of steps and variety from one city to another let alone group to another.
Rueda de Casino, the Cuban style moves done in a circle has taken an interesting turn in recent years. There has been an explosion of different formations that are used in the dance—(e.g. inverted circles, Rueda Mixta and many other complex approaches to the formations for the dance).
Final comment: In 2015, a dancer named Juliet Mc Mains, published a wonderful book that deals with all styles and types of Salsa, tracing their evolution and history. The title is “Spinning Mambo into Salsa.” In the chapter on Casino Dancing in Cuba and Miami, she addresses the debate about dancing in the authentic Cuban style versus the Miami version of the dance. She says that there was actually a lot of exchange of dance steps when people who lived in Miami and went home to visit family in Cuba. They brought American steps to Cuba that the Cubans wanted to learn. Likewise, Cubans picked up moves from their American relatives on visits and taught them to others in Cuba.
McMains says that the types of Casino dancing (authentic Cuban versus Miami style) became less distinct due to this kind of exchange back and forth. And then she said that the advent of the internet enabled dancers to see what was being done elsewhere so they could really organize the concept of distinctly different styles Congresses also allowed dancers to see how others danced.